Palmitelaidic Acid (9-trans-Hexadecenoic acid) is the trans isomer of palmitoleic acid. Palmitoleic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in serum and tissue. IC50 & Target: AMPK, PPARα, GlucokinaseIn Vitro: The monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleate (palmitoleic acid) is one of the most abundant fatty acids in serum and tissues, particularly adipose tissue and liver. Its endogenous production by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gives rise to its cis isoform, cis-palmitoleate. Palmitoleic acid has been correlated with multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, including high blood pressure, total cholesterol, TGs, apoA-I, apoB, and endothelial dysfunction. In Vivo: Palmitoleic acid promotes a faster uptake of glucose in the body, associated with higher insulin concentration. Palmitoleic acid increases the phosphorylation of AMPK, up-regulates glucokinase and down-regulates SREBP-1. Regarding AMPK downstream, palmitoleic acid increases the production of FGF-21 and stimulates the expression of PPARα. Palmitoleic acid reduces body weight increase, ameliorates the development of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and improves insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, palmitoleic acid down-regulates mRNA expressions of proinflammatory adipocytokine genes (TNFα and resistin) in white adipose tissue and lipogenic genes (SREBP-1, FAS, and SCD-1) in liver.